Koyal Group Info Mag – Scientists honour biggest name in evolutionary biology since Darwin

Koyal Group Info Mag Scientists honour biggest name in evolutionary biology since Darwin


Hamilton’s work has caused the field of evolutionary biology to explode in surprising directions – from discovering why queen bees alone lay eggs in a hive to understanding what triggers social conflict to why cancer cells replicate uncontrollably.
As well, his legacy has changed “the way [that] doctors are thinking about diseases” and how illnesses can change over time, says Joan Herbers, professor of evolution and ecology at Ohio State University.
Herbers says that Hamiltonian thinking guides the work of scientists searching for everything from cures for types of cancer to the causes of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and what therapies we can use to conquer it.
Despite their deep influence on an array of scientific disciplines, Hamilton’s theories had a comparatively humble origin.
Hamilton was born in 1936 in Cairo, Egypt, but his family moved to Europe and settled in Kent, England. Although he published fewer than 60 papers during his career, he was arguably the most influential evolutionary biologist since Darwin. Darwin’s theories of natural selection explained the form, function and behaviours of many different animals, but failed to account for altruism in bees and humans. Altruism is basically selflessness. It’s helping another individual for their benefit while suffering a personal cost. In nature, this often manifests as a trait that prevents the helper from having their own babies.
More than 100 years after Darwin’s theory was published, Hamilton found the key to “Darwin’s special problem” of altruism that explained why this seemingly counter-intuitive lifestyle came to be, says Herbers.



The Koyal Group Journals, Research models behavior of ultra-cold atoms and polar molecules

Theoretical physicist Ana Maria Rey uses the computer, as well as pencil and paper, to develop mathematical models that describe the behavior of ultra-cold atoms. The idea is to use these systems to learn more about condensed matter physics and quantum mechanics with the goal of inspiring new materials, precision measurements and quantum information.

Using ultra-cold atoms, “we aim to develop synthetic materials that do not exist in nature, but which can help us understand materials that do exist in nature,” says National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded scientist Rey, a research assistant professor in the University of Colorado Boulder’s Department of Physics and a fellow at JILA, a joint institute of the university and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

“Electrons in solids can exhibit rich behavior, complex behavior, that we do not understand,” she adds. “This behavior comes from interactions of many electrons. When the electrons in the solids interact and see other electrons, the laws of quantum mechanics govern how they behave. This is very complicated behavior. This behavior is so complex that even a classical computer cannot solve it.”

Rey is a recent recipient of one of this year’s prestigious MacArthur fellowships, a $625,000 no-strings-attached award, popularly known as a “genius” grant. These go to talented individuals who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their fields.

She also has received about $500,000 in NSF funding since her arrival at JILA in 2008 for work that includes modeling the behavior of ultra-cold atoms and polar molecules.

Rey and her colleagues create artificial materials by trapping atoms with light. In order to do this, “we have to make them very cold,” she explains. “We then use lasers to try to mimic the potential that electrons feel in real solids.”

Ultimately, her research could lead to new materials for more effective superconductors, as well as new magnetic behavior that could speed up computer development. One of the eventual goals, for example, is to develop new materials that super-conduct at room temperature, rather than only in extreme cold.

“This will help everything, because nowadays you have to cool the materials down, which is very expensive,” she says. “If we don’t have to cool them down, everything that uses superconductivity can be made much less expensively.”

She also is developing a comprehensive theoretical framework for an optical-lattice quantum computer based on alkaline earth metals, and she already has proposed solutions for problems associated with storing, addressing, and transporting qubits, which are the quantum equivalent of traditional computing bits.

Among other things, she is attempting to resolve long-standing obstacles to large-scale entanglement between atoms, which quantum computers require both for communication and calculations.

“We want to use atoms trapped in light to create a quantum computer,” she says. “The internal levels of the atom are the qubits of the computer. For example, we are proposing atoms in the second column of the periodic table–alkaline Earth elements, such as strontium–which have large number of degrees of freedom to improve computation capabilities.”

Such research potentially could produce smaller and faster computers with capabilities that classical computers do not now have. “A classical computer has to do its computations one at a time, but with quantum mechanics, all the computations are done in parallel,” she says.

Finally, she also is working on advances in developing an optical atomic clock.

“Atoms are a tool that allows us to measure time in a very precise way,” she says. “The energy levels of an atom are like the ticking of a clock. The higher the energy separation between levels, the more ticks you have and the more precise your clock.

“The atomic clock measures time, and to measure time better, we need more atoms,” she says. “The more atoms we have, the higher the signal-to-noise ratio, meaning that in principle, the clock is more precise.”

One persistent problem, however, is that atom collide, “and that is bad for the clock,” she adds. “What I have done is try to understand the origins of these collisions, and try to control them in order to improve the clock.”

—             Marlene Cimons, National Science Foundation


Ana Rey

Deborah Jin

Chris Greene

Eric Cornell

Murray Holland

Victor Gurarie

William Lineberger

Related Institutions/Organizations

University of Colorado at Boulder

Paracetamol kopplade till sällsynta hudsjukdomar, FDA varning


Den amerikanska Food and Drug Administration har just kommit ut med en ny varning för en feber och smärtstillande medel som är en av de mest använda smärta läkemedel i landet.


According to the organization, possible reactions to the drug, known as Acetaminophen, can cause rare but serious skin reactions. The FDA warns to stop taking the product if you develop a rash or other skin reaction and immediately seek medical attention.


“Denna nya information är inte avsedd att oroa konsumenterna eller hälso-och sjukvårdspersonal, inte heller det är tänkt att uppmuntra dem att välja andra mediciner,” sade Sharon Hertz, MD, biträdande chef för FDA: s uppdelning av anestesi och analgesi missbruk, via FDA. “Men det är mycket viktigt att människor känner igen och reagerar snabbt på de första symptomen på dessa sällsynta men allvarliga biverkningar, som är potentiellt dödlig.”


I sällsynta fall kan drogen kopplas till Stevens – Johnson syndrom (SJS) och toxisk epidermal nekrolys. Detta är mycket allvarliga hudåkommor som vanligtvis kräver sjukhusvistelse och kan ibland även resultatet i döden.


Problem som följer av dessa villkor brukar börja med influensaliknande symtom följt av en svidande utslag och omfattande skador till ytbehandlar av huden. Enligt FDA, återhämtningen kan ta veckor eller ännu möjligen månader och kan lämna ärrbildning och förändringar av pigmentering i huden. Vissa fall av detta tillstånd har även resulterat i blindhet.


FDA slutsatsen följande om narkotika och fall av dödsfall eller sjukhusinläggningar: “en sökning av FAERS avslöjade 107 fall från 1969 till 2012, vilket resulterar i 67 sjukhusinläggningar och 12 dödsfall. De flesta fall inblandade enda ingrediens paracetamol produkter. fallen var Kategoriserad som antingen troligt eller möjligt samband med Paracetamol.”


De lägger också till att bara ett litet antal över två dussin fall har dokumenterats i medicinsk litteratur.